Storing Secrets Securely in Kotlin

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By Sean Soper

February 21, 2021

Photo by Ijaz Rafi on Unsplash.


It’s not uncommon for applications to occasionally need to store secrets. The security of those secrets relies partly on the underlying cryptography and partly on the layout of the scheme. In this implementation, we will provide sensible defaults using dependency injection to simplify both testing and deployment to a production-ready system.

This post references work previously done in Using Retrofit to Integrate with an API.


We will be making use of the KeyStore class which offers three methods for storing secrets. Let’s go to the documentation.

  • PrivateKeyEntry – This type of entry holds a cryptographic PrivateKey, which is optionally stored in a protected format to prevent unauthorized access. It is also accompanied by a certificate chain for the corresponding public key.
  • TrustedCertificateEntry – This type of entry contains a single public key Certificate belonging to another party. It is called a trusted certificate because the keystore owner trusts that the public key in the certificate indeed belongs to the identity identified by the subject (owner) of the certificate.
  • SecretKeyEntry – This type of entry holds a cryptographic SecretKey, which is optionally stored in a protected format to prevent unauthorized access.

Since our needs are pretty basic we can get what we need out of the last option, SecretKeyEntry, without the hassle of having to deal with any certificates. We will store our secrets on the filesystem and the structure will look like this.

      ├─ key.password

The key.password is where we will store the password that can lock or unlock our secrets. Ideally, in a production system it should be located in a different directory than the which holds our actual secrets.

Keeping Secrets

Let’s start with a Secrets class and the functionality to retrieve the file or create it if it doesn’t exist.

class Secrets(private val keyStorePath: Path = Paths.get(System.getProperty("user.home"), ".secrets", ""),
              private val passwordPath: Path = Paths.get(System.getProperty("user.home"), ".secrets", "key.password")) {

    private val keyStoreFile: File
        get() {
            val dirPath = keyStorePath.parent

            if (!dirPath.toFile().exists()) {

            return keyStorePath.toFile()


Now we’ll want to load the contents of that file into a KeyStore or return a null entry.

private val keyStore: KeyStore by lazy {
    val keyStore = KeyStore.getInstance(KeyStore.getDefaultType())

    if (keyStoreFile.exists()) {
        val stream = FileInputStream(keyStoreFile)
        try {
            keyStore.load(stream, password)
        } catch (exception: {
            throw CachedTokenException(keyStorePath)
    } else {
        keyStore.load(null, password)


We’ll also want a means of saving and retrieving our password that can lock and unlock the store. If the password file doesn’t exist then we will generate a new password using UUID.randomUUID() and save that as our password.

private val password: CharArray by lazy {
    val dirPath = passwordPath.parent
    if (!dirPath.toFile().exists()) {

    val path = passwordPath.toFile()

    if (path.exists()) {
    } else {
        val uuid = UUID.randomUUID().toString()

Note that both of these properties make use of the lazy keyword which means they aren’t computed until after first access. And once computed, the results are remembered so they don’t have to be computed again, useful for operations like loading data out of a file. As well, lazy getters don’t require a return statement since they are technically a lambda of type Lazy<T>.

Retrieve Entries

With the basics of our KeyStore and password handled, retrieving entries becomes fairly simple. Note however that the getEntry method on KeyStore is incorrectly marked as non-nullable. That means we need to use an old fashioned null check instead of an optional.

fun getEntry(entry: String): String? {
    if (!keyStoreFile.exists()) {
        return null

    val protection = KeyStore.PasswordProtection(password)
    val secret = keyStore.getEntry(entry, protection)

    return if (secret != null) {
        String((secret as KeyStore.SecretKeyEntry).secretKey.encoded)
    } else {

Save Entries

Adding the ability to save entries is the last bit of functionality we need.

fun setEntry(entry: String, value: String) {
    val protection = KeyStore.PasswordProtection(password)
    val encoded = SecretKeySpec(value.toByteArray(), "AES")

    keyStore.setEntry(entry, KeyStore.SecretKeyEntry(encoded), protection)

    val stream = FileOutputStream(keyStoreFile)
    stream.use {, password)

We can also add a nice little convenience function for quickly clearing the store if need be.

fun destroy() {


With our simple key store, we can quickly retrieve and save values that we’d prefer to remain secret. Unit testing this functionality isn’t difficult either through the use of temporary directories. While this implementation avoids any references to the E*TRADE API, saving API keys is precisely why I created it.

A summary of these commits can be found here.